Archive for June, 2011

Today’s Guardian has a fun quiz – can you name the 10 real animals, and spot the five fictional red herrings?

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A recent review paper by Zafir et al on the status of the Sumatran rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, makes for rather depressing reading. The Sumatran rhino is currently listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN (click here for an explanation of what this means), and Zafir’s review of current research suggests that there may be just 216 adult rhino left in the wild.


The Sumatran rhino is the smallest rhino species and is rather more hairy than its African cousins. It has two horns and lives in tropical rainforest, eating leaves. Although previously found throughout South-East Asia, its population is now restricted to reserves in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo and it is the most endangered rhino species on our planet. Zafir’s review shows there have been large drops in the rhino populations in many reserves over the last 20 years. In Sumatra’s Kerinci-Seblat National Park, for example, there were an estimated 28 rhinos in 1995, but by 2007 the Sumatran rhino was deemed extinct in this reserve, while in 1995 Taman Negara National Park in Malaysia was a stronghold with 44 rhino, but extensive photo-trapping in 2004 didn’t produce any rhino photographs and track encounter rates were low, suggesting this population has also dramatically decreased.

 Fig 1 from Zafir et al, showing Sumatran rhino distribution.
1 Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park

2 Way Kambas National Park
3 Danum Valley Conservation Area
4 Tabin Wildlife Reserve
5 Royal Belum State Park
6 Taman Negara National Park
7 Endau Rompin National Park
8 Gunung Leuser National Park
9 Kerinci Seblat National Park.

 Poaching remains one of the main threats to the survival of the Sumatran rhino, with 1kg of horn selling for $45,000. A similarly large threat, however, is the effect of small population size – unfortunately, once a population is reduced it can enter a phenomenon known as the ‘Allee effect’, essentially a vicious cycle where the fact that the population is small increases its chances of getting smaller and going extinct through chance events.


For example, entirely due to chance there may be a larger number of male rhinos born one year, say a 2:1 skew instead of the normal 1:1 ratio. In a large population this skew would have little effect – if the offspring are 20,000:10,000 then there are still plenty of females around. In a small population though this could be catastrophic – if only three offspring are born that year we now have two males and only one female, and this can affect the long-term prospects of the population. In the case of the Sumatran rhino, these ‘stochastic’ (random) events would also be exacerbated by their long gestation and dependency period of calves – rhino usually only have one calf every three years. Another example is that as a population decreases, it gets more difficult to find a mate and to reproduce. In addition, inbreeding and lack of genetic diversity can also have an enlarged detrimental effect in small populations. These combined factors can result in birth rates too low to replace the population, and so the population will gradually diminish to extinction.


The good news is that Zafir et al think the Sumatran rhino can be saved, and they outline the strategies that need to be concentrated on to do so. These include moving (‘translocating’) individuals in isolated populations (that are unlikely to be large enough to be self-sustaining) into a semi captive sanctuary in Sumatra. Here the rhinos can be monitored closely and males and females can be introduced at the best time for reproduction, hopefully maximising reproduction rates. A similar sanctuary has been established on Borneo. The second main strategy is to increase anti-poaching measures for those reserves that do have good rhino populations, as well as greater judicial enforcement when poachers are caught. We need to keep those rhino of breeding age alive to reproduce and build up the populations. These methods will entail considerable funding, although as the authors point out, no more money than was recently paid for an auctioned comic book;  the alternative is yet another species vanishing forever as we watch from the sidelines.



AWA Zafir et al 2011. Now or never: what will it take to save the Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis from extinction? Oryx 45(2): 225-233

 Further Info
International Rhino Foundation
The Rhino Resource Centre
Animal Info
Ultimate Ungulate 

Allee Effect:
The Encyclopedia of Earth
Endless Forms

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Some animals are capable of producing their own light, termed bioluminescence. Reasons for creating this light vary from attracting mates (e.g. fireflies) or prey (e.g. angler fish), for camouflage (e.g. the cookiecutter shark), and to warn off predators (e.g. firefly larvae), and it can be pretty spectacular – check out this fascinating BBC’s Blue Planet footage:

One interesting example is a marine snail, Hinea brasiliana that lives in the intertidal zone (the area that is underwater at high tide, but exposed at low tide). The snail produces blue-green light from cells within two patches on its body – which, unusually, are hidden within the opaque shell that protects the snail’s soft body from predators. This would usually totally negate the point of bioluminescent – if nobody else can see it, what’s the point in emitting light flashes? Research by Deheyn and Wilson, however, has shown that the snail gets around this problem by having a specially adapted shell. It specifically allows light in the blue-green spectrum to pass through it and also diffuses the light, so that the shell is lit up. The researchers think that the snail’s light flashes may act as a deterrent to predators – while its clever shell may prove to be useful  in directing the design of future human-made light diffusing materials.


DD Deheyn and NG Wilson. 2011. Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 2112-2121

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This fortnight’s photo(s) of choice are a set of night shots by photographer Martin Dohrn that I spotted on the BBC Wildlife Magazine website. He’s taken some really interesting thermal images and beautiful after-dark shots of African wildlife that give an unique view of life in the bush. Check them out here.

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Interesting news articles on the BBC’s website today discuss animals with extraordinarily long life-spans, including a lobster that can live to age 85 and a jellyfish that is essentially immortal, and how time-lapse photography has revealed how emperor penguin huddles function to keep all the group members warm at -45 degrees C. Well worth a read.

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